NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry (NUML JCI)  E ISSN 2789-4665, P ISSN 2222-5706 is a continuation of NUML Research Magazine, with revised and improved parameters, approved by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The contributions are duly abstracted and indexed by ProQuest, CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database (USA). NUML JCI is listed in ProQuest Academic Research Library. NUML JCI has also signed agreements with ProQuest and Ebscohost for international distribution, abstracting, and indexing services. The journal aims at investigating and bringing forth innovative research-based concepts and practices at national and international levels, and promotes scholarly research in the domains of Language, Literature, Linguistics, and Education. The journal provides platform to researchers, classroom practitioners and academic professionals to share their novel theoretical and practical research initiatives. NUML JCI hosts stimulating, inspiring, and informative research papers catering to the complex and increasingly diversifying multidimensional needs of learners, teachers and professionals in diverse contexts. Contributions that break new grounds in the prescribed fields of knowledge, initiate interdisciplinary debates, tap into the latest ideas in pedagogy and creative thinking, and produce knowledge through reasoning and research are welcomed. The journal also accepts Book Reviews in the related areas. NUML JCI not only encourages authors to be creative but also attempts to motivate and guide readers to be inquisitive, creative, and critical in approach. It encourages creative freedom of expression and provides a space for enunciation that may help discipline the intellectual minds to come forth with a logically set frame of innovative ideas in various fields of study. The journal is constantly striving to achieve excellence by promoting quality research. It is also committed to forge ahead with a zeal to set standards of quality and academic integrity. In recognition of its efforts and contribution to research, the journal was upgraded to “CATEGORY Y” by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in January 2016.


NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry (NUML JCI) aims to connect different paradigms of research while overcoming restrictions that impact freedom and creativity. With the diffused boundaries of research, our journal aspires for a uniqueness to explore untrodden territories. Our journal encourages the researchers to peer deeper into our social, cognitive, and scientific systems than ever before. Novelty in research and dynamic approach in exploring areas of interest have always been a forte of potentially creative researchers, but none has witnessed a riper time before. Our journal seeks to combine human cognition with interactive environment and motivational stimuli in order to bear sufficient impetus to bring forth newer insights into areas of everyday familiarity.  

Aims and Objectives

NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry (NUML JCI) (  e-ISSN 2789-4665, p-ISSN 2222-5706) is an HEC recognized biannual peer-reviewed journal which strictly follows double blind peer review process and shows zero tolerance for work which is not original. At the same time, it encourages and welcomes such novelty, originality, and motivational contribution that can set new trends and establish new norms. The journal aims to be a trend setter in multidisciplinary research fields. We believe in facilitation, quality and striving for excellence.  

Vol. 19 No. II (2021): NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry (JCI) Vol 19 (Il), December, 2021

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Researchers' Guide

Authors are required to abide by the following instructions while submitting their contributions to NUML JCI:

Length, Content and Format

We publish papers in the domains of LanguageLiteratureLinguistics, and Education. The manuscript should be typewritten and single-spaced. The length of research paper/articles should be 5000-8000 words including title, abstract, main text, figures and tables excluding references. Language should be strictly academic without colloquial, slang, and regional expressions, etc. The authors should avoid using idiomatic and affective language. The protocols of academic research should be maintained. Consistency of American spelling is required. Papers should be proofread and free from all grammatical and typographical errors. We demand a sharp and practical understanding of punctuation from our prospective authors.

The format for citations, endnotes, and references should conform to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, latest edition). All submissions to NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry should be original and well-scripted. The authors bear full responsibility for the accuracy of references and originality. With their manuscripts, the authors should attach short professional biographies covering their full names, qualifications, current designations, and institutional affiliation(s), area(s) of interest, and email address(es).

The research paper would normally include introduction followed by main argument, theoretical framework (lens(es) to support it, hypothesis/statement of the problem, controlling research questions, and research methodology/methods of data-collection that explain(s) how the research is likely to be carried out, analysis and interpretation, and findings/inferences/conclusion/recommendations that round off the main proposition. But since a research paper is not a dissertation/thesis, the authors, especially those writing literature papers (using qualitative approach) are supposed to knit up these ingredients within the larger argument without using subheadings like Hypothesis/Statement of the Problem, Theoretical Framework, Research Methodology. We do not strictly ask for writing Literature Review in research papers because the authors build their argument on the strength of available critical scholarship in their respective areas of study and pull in many secondary sources in their analyses/interpretations of texts. In this way, their work gets situated/located in the contemporary scholarship. However, the authors may write their essays in multiple parts by using subheadings that complement their main argument or analyses of texts and bring clarity and cohesiveness to their argument.

We have, however, a flexible format for authors who write papers in Language/Linguistics or education and use quantitative methods. They may use subheadings like Hypothesis/Statement of the Problem, Research Objectives/Questions, Theoretical Framework, Research Methodology, Data Analysis, Findings/Conclusion, etc. But if a linguistics paper is written with a qualitative approach, or qual-qant method, they may not follow this format strictly and adjust their priorities accordingly.

It is important to note that the word ‘data’ is used for empirical/quantitative research and should not be used by those who are using literary texts (novels, poems, plays, and non-fiction). Since their research is qualitative/interpretive, they need to use the word ‘text.’ However, if the author is doing qualitative analysis of data collected through quantitative means, they may use words like ‘data,’ ‘data collection,’ and ‘data analysis.’

Whether authors use subheadings for ‘Introduction’ and ‘Conclusion’ in their essays or not, they are supposed to open and close essays convincingly. They should start off by giving clear leads into what their papers are about, laying out the basic premises of their research supported by a convincing argument that leads to the theoretical support and methodology of their essays. The entire body of the essay, including analysis of data or texts, should stay relevant to the key claims of research. Methodology, Methods of Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation should suit the implications of the hypothesis/statement of the problem/questions and carried through in the light of adopted theoretical stance. The last 1-3 paragraphs should conclude the discussion through findings or affirmation of the research claims staked out in the beginning. The researchers working in quantitative paradigm are generally supposed to come up with finite/factual/verified results and their language should support their inferences. On the other hand, those writing papers with qualitative approach need to use language of possibility (may, might) while rounding off their main proposition and avoid closure and finitude because of the non-generalizable nature of their research.

File Format

MS Word

Headers and Page Numbers

Do not include headers or page numbers in the manuscript.


An abstract of 250-300 words, Calibri 11 point, indented 1 centimeter on each margin, at the beginning of the paper; preferably presenting a brief of what to expect in the paper. Abstract should be one continuous paragraph in which headings are to be avoided.


“Keywords:” in Straight, Bold followed by 3-4 key words in Italics, pertaining to the main concepts of the paper, separated by a comma within the same line

Body Text

Calibri 11 point, single spacing with 6 pt paragraph spacing, Justified